One of the holdings in each county (normally a castle) is the capital and is always held by the count of that county. If the county capital is a city or temple then the realm is a republic or theocracy respectively. Duchies and higher ranked realms can also be republics and theocracies if the capital of the realm is a city or temple.
For most cultures and religions, the ruler of a barony is a baron (male) or baroness (female), but there are several exceptions:
- Þegn/Baroness (Norse, Norse pagan)
- Argbadh/Wâlia (Iranian)
- Wâli/Wâlia (Arabic, West African)
- Timariot/Timariota (Turkish)
- Taishi/Baroness (Mongol)
- Hetman/Baroness (Non-Norse pagan)
- Teuctli/Teuctli (Nahua)
Note religous title variants 'trump' cultural ones. For example, a baron with Mongol culture and Tengri pagan religion will be known as a Hetman.
Similarly, baronies themselves can be known by other names:
- Wilayah (Arabic, West African)
- Arg (Iranian)
- Timar (Turkish)
- Taishi (Mongol)
The titles of baronies and barons in republics and theocracies are different still.